Talk to any chef or experienced foodie and everyone will agree that sugars play an important role in the overall pleasure we receive from eating. From breakfasts to late night desserts, sugars make an impact in our sensorial experience.
Trigonelline is a bitter alkaloid in coffee which serves to produce important aroma compounds. In terms of concentration trigonelline is higher for arabica than robusta and ranges from about 0.6-1.3% and 0.3-0.9%, respectively.
In its pure state - caffeine, or 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, exists as a white powdered alkaloid with an intensely bitter taste. Caffeine acts as a stimulant for the central nervous system (CNS) having the temporary effect of warding off sleep and restoring alertness in both humans and animals.
In both arabica and robusta coffee, free and bound proteins account for roughly 10 to 13% of coffee’s dry matter. Since proteins are made of smaller components called amino acids - these can vary significantly within each coffee based on a number of factors.
Of the two commercially important species of coffee - arabica generally contains more lipids than robusta averaging 15-17% and 10-11.5%, respectively. With the actual coffee bean only a small percentage of the lipid oil is actually contained in the waxy portion covering the bean, while the majority being distributed in the endosperm.
Carbohydrates are perhaps one of the largest family of compounds in organic chemistry. As the name implies, carbohydrates are simply hydrated carbon molecules with complex structure. Of course, the most common carbohydrate is that of sucrose, or table sugar, but there are literally thousands of molecules in this branch of chemistry.
Quinic acid along with citric and malic represent a significant portion of coffee's total acid content. During roasting quinic acid progressively increases as the levels of chlorogenic acid decrease, suggesting that its formation results from the cleavage of the chlorogenic acid moiety.