Of the two commercially important species of coffee - arabica generally contains more lipids than robusta averaging 15-17% and 10-11.5%, respectively. With the actual coffee bean only a small percentage of the lipid oil is actually contained in the waxy portion covering the bean, while the majority being distributed in the endosperm.
Carbohydrates are perhaps one of the largest family of compounds in organic chemistry. As the name implies, carbohydrates are simply hydrated carbon molecules with complex structure. Of course, the most common carbohydrate is that of sucrose, or table sugar, but there are literally thousands of molecules in this branch of chemistry.
Quinic acid along with citric and malic represent a significant portion of coffee's total acid content. During roasting quinic acid progressively increases as the levels of chlorogenic acid decrease, suggesting that its formation results from the cleavage of the chlorogenic acid moiety.
Like many living organisms, citric acid plays an important role as a key intermediate compound in the plant's metabolic cycle. In green coffee citric acid makes up a significant portion of coffee's total acid content and ultimately in the development of perceived acidity.
Discovered in 1932, chlorogenic acids (CGA) represent a large family of esterified compounds present in green and roasted coffee. During roasting, CGA's slowly decompose to form caffeic and quinic acid with about 50% of the original CGA being destroyed in a medium roast.
In coffee there are over thirty organic acids with perhaps the most common consisting of citric, malic, acetic, quinic, etc. But there is another branch of acids, namely norganic acids , that deserved special recognition, of these phosphoric acid plays a particularly important role.
Acetic acid, or more commonly known as vinegar, is one of the many organic acids that play an important role in coffee quality. Although, there are varying levels found in both dry and wet processed coffees, its formation during post harvest processing comes primarily from fermentation.