In the coffee industry the term "mocha" can refer to three things:
1. Variety - mocha is one of three varieties originating from Yemen - others include typica and bourbon. While these three varieties are considered "heirloom varietals" and are perhaps the oldest, they are considered by many coffee experts as superior; they are usually more compact and less productive than their hybrid counterparts.
2. Beverage preparation - before the destruction of Yemen's coffee industry by a fungus, Mocha coffee was appreciated by many roasters due to its unique dark chocolate/caramel taste. When its production significantly dropped due to infestation, many roasters were severely left without inventory and ultimately had to create a way to "recreate" this unique origin. Nowadays, the term "mocha" is a beverage prepared where dark chocolate coffee is usually added along with milk. Source: Coffee: A Celebration of Diversity, p. 75
Kaldi is the Abyssian (present day Ethiopia) herder who is credited with the discovery of coffee. Apparently one day he awoke to see his goats frolicking around a coffee shrub eating a red cherry. After trying the bean himself he soon found himself widely awake, the rest is history. See our history section for more info.
Developed by C.W. Post in 1895, Postum is a caffeine free, powdered coffee substitute made mostly of roasted wheat and molasses. The product was developed as an alternative to coffee, since caffeine at the time was thought to be harmful to health. Several products have since been created in an effort to mimic coffee's taste, without the caffeine. Postum is still available today, but is now marketed by Kraft Foods.
Coffee's characteristic brown color comes from the formation of melanoidins, brown colored polymetric compounds created during the roasting process, namely the Maillard reaction. In coffee, melanoidins account for roughly 25-30% of coffee's beverage weight. The compounds are quite similar to the 'melanin' stored under human skin and responsible for our skin characteristic tan-like color.
Both Puerto Rico and Hawaii have been growing coffee since the early 1800's, although technically Puerto Rico is not a State. Together they produce roughly 161,000 bags (60kg) according to 2006/2007 estimates, of this only 14,000 bags are of specialty quality1.
Contrary to popular belief there is no such thing as "espresso beans" grown on espresso plants. The term is usually used to refer either a specific blend of beans for espresso use, or a style of roasting or a combination thereof.
Developed during the 1940's by industrial chemist Peter Schumbohm, and popularized in the 1950's, these brewers consist of a glass coffee pot shaped like an hour glass. In essence, the brewer is a modified glass funnel over a Erlenmeyer flask. What differentiated this brewer was the use of heavy filter paper, which retained sediment, but allowed for aromatic compounds to come through. Schlumbohm described his brewer as "the Chemists way of making coffee". CHEMEX is a registered trademark and does not refer to a generic style of brewer.
Under normal development a cherry will produce two beans, each grown along their flat sides facing each other. When one bean fails to develop, the other bean will occupy its space and a single bean forms - resulting in a 'peaberry'. Although technically a mutant bean, some coffee professionals claim the beans have a richer more concentrated flavor, though this is still inconclusive. Perhaps the most famous peaberry beans are the Tanzanian peaberry which command higher prices, but several other origins including Kona, Kenya AA and Java exist.
Monsoon coffee originated in India as a way to replicate Old Brown Java coffees after the island was devastated due to fungal infestations. The exact origin of monsoon is varied, but it is believed that shipping the coffee from Java to Europe in the wooden hulls of ships resulted in a coffee with a similar taste profile as that of true Java coffee.
In the monsoon aging process, beans are stored in open-sided warehouses for several months and exposed to the damp salty winds of the monsoon. The process is believed to reduce acidity, imparting a 'meaty', heavy, syrupy profile. Monsoons beans have a slightly tan color, resembling pergamino, and are roughly double in size.
Kopi or Indonesian for 'coffee', is coffee that has been eaten and digested through the digestive tract of the Common Palm Civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus). The mammal, which goes by a number of different names inlcluding Luwak, Luak, Toddy Cat or Asian Palm Civet, is indigenous to the South east Asia. The animal is commonly seen in Sumatra, Java, and Sulawesi in Indonesia, though in Vietnam the coffee is called "weasel coffee" or Kape Alamid.
Kopi Luwak is one of the most expensive coffee's in the world commanding up to $300 USD per pound with the majority of the coffee being sold to Japan and the United States. It is estimated that only tree to five hundred pounds of this coffee is produced per year.
According to coffee professionals, the distinct conditions within the digestive tract of the palm civet creates a coffee with a smoother cup profile. In 2004, a SARS scare led to thousands of civets being exterminated, though the demand for coffee remained unaffected.
How many cups of coffee can I make from 1 lb of coffee?
Generally 1lb of coffee will produce anywhere from 30-40 cups (6-8oz) cups of coffee. Of course this depends on the method of brewing, coffee weight use, strength, etc. The SCAA recommends using 55 grams of ground coffee per liter of water, or approximately 8.25g per 150mL, accounting for less than ten cents per cup and making specialty coffee a relatively low cost "luxury".
French roasts or sometimes referred to as Italian roasts are typically very dark coffees with over 20-30% of their initial weight lost. The style of coffee is typically used in espresso and espresso based drinks, since the increase in astringency/bitterness allows for the coffee flavor to 'cut 'through' the milk products. Commonly seen in cafes such as Starbucks.
The first crack is the point in which an audible 'cracking' sound is perceived during roasting process. This occurs as pressure builds up within the internal cells and eventually burst due to the rapid expansion of water into steam. The first crack is typically seen at around 205°C (400°F) and is the point at which the beans typically double in volume and lose about 5% of their initial weight.
The second crack is characterized by a very short endothermic phase, followed by a rapid exothermic phase, where another louder 'popping' sound is heard. At this point a second pyrolysis occurs, resulting in pressures build up within the beans cells and oils rapidly being pushed out onto the surface. This is typically seen at around 225-230°C thereby leaving most of the sucrose (sugar) in its caramelized bitter form.
White coffee is very light roasted coffee with almost tan-like color and rock hard texture. Some believe white coffee contains more caffeine than regularly roasted coffee and is hence used commonly for espresso drinks, although it is seldomly used for drip coffee. In the US, the term is also used to describe coffee with a whitener added (milk, non dairy creamer).
Also known as "fast roasting", high yield roasting is a method of roasting using very high temperature and short time (HTST). Commonly used for lower quality coffee, it produces a beverage with a higher solubles content important for the instant coffee market. Some find this coffee highly astringent due to high levels of chlorogenic acid. According to food scientists, this method of roasting improves the flavor of lower quality Robusta coffee.
The Maillard reaction (MRx) is one of the most important reactions occurring during roasting. MRx involves the binding of an amino acid with a sugar, resulting in the formation of a number of important flavor and colored compounds.
Examples of the Maillard reaction in other products include: toasted bread, flavor of roast meat, grilled steak, etc. The MRx is non-enzymatic which means it requires an external energy source such as heat to initialize the reaction.
Although there is a slight correlation between bean size and beverage quality, this is not always a rule of thumb. For example, "peaberry" beans are generally seeked out by quality demanding roasters, whereas larger "maragogype" beans do not always guarantee high quality.
In Colombia, "supremo" beans are usually of lesser quality than the smaller "excelsa"1. The truth is that at higher altitudes beans grow larger, have a harder structural rigidity (eg. SHB), and roast more uniformly. When considering quality, one should always look at several other factors than just bean size.
Developed by the Agtron Corporation (Reno, NV), the agtron scale is the most commonly used reference scale for roast color classification.
The scale ranges from 25 to 95 and is the measure of light reflected off roasted coffee - measured in either ground or whole bean form. The lower the number, the darker the coffee (i.e. less light reflected back) while larger numbers refer to lighter roasts. Photo below illustrates a typical color disc.